Physics of the Impossible by Michio Kaku [Book Summary – Review]

Things that were once just fantastic fiction make up many of today’s technologies. Have you realized that 19th-century fiction writer Jules Verne has already dreamed about devices such as fax devices, an international network, and moon rocket ships? Although we accepted these technologies today, Verne’s newer versions, including the leading physics specialists, made fun of them, convinced them to be impossible.

Even when you watch sci-fi films that are not aged, you can see that various tech that delineated today are considered rough, like large devices having a lot of flashing bulbs. In some respects, the science of now has exceeded fiction yesterday, although it has not yet passed through other galaxies wearing catsuits.

And are you wondering about what tech that we think impossible currently will be? Which of these is going to be achieved in the following decades and the way? You are going to discover if you keep reading.

Buy this book from Amazon

Chapter 1 – There is found actual science after the opinions of force areas and cloaks that make you invisible.

Do you recognize the force areas applied in the movie Star Trek? Challenging energy areas that preserve ships from missiles and fires from enemies? Imaginary, isn’t it? The one, that is known in classical physics, is force fields.

As it understands, lots of devices may have an impact on other objects around them with no touching. For example, a magnet pulls or pushes things in an exact area surrounding over. In the 19th hundred years, by Michael Faraday who was an English scientist named, it is told that uncovered the theme of force areas, fields that cannot be seen, or places of force surrounding a magnet. Then, the concept extended to involve other forces, like the world’s gravitational area.

Of course, although these are not the force areas that we recognize from sci-fi, we can create them with the help of them. It may even be likely to improve force areas that distort missiles.

Here’s what you need to do: When the gas is exhibited to excessive heat, plasma which is a pile that is filled with electricity that is not rock-hard, liquid or gas-free occurs. This plasma can then be formed with magnetic and electric areas that make a layer or a plasma window that cannot be seen. This force area can then be strengthened with a carbon nanotube cage: nanoscopic cylinders consist of fine, cylindric carbon layers. The thing that is mightier than stainless steel is carbon nanotubes and these can distort missiles.

However, what happens if you desire to divert someone’s attention with, for instance, a cloak that makes one invisible? This is not impossible either!

Our talent for seeing relies on light to be reflected by objects. The greater the light that is coming from the material instead of being reflected, the less visible the material, for example, the thing that occurs with a gas-free or liquid. However, there is another way to make things unseen: Around 2006, scholars from Duke University, it was improved composite materials named metamaterials including small particles that were deflected instead of reflecting light waves. Objects wrapped in this type of material are almost invisible.

Chapter 2 – Somethings that can appear external to the planet in the movie Star Wars can be phasors and death stars.

Starting with Archimedes, a Greek maths specialist, up until the films of Star Wars, which fascinates us; the opinion was to use pointers or beams of light for guns. So is this literal to imagine that one day we will fire handheld fighter weapons or use the planetary destructive power of the Death Star that George Lucas created?

Following the developments in nanotechnology, hand-held laser guns may be likely soon. In point, a laser in rocket protection structures has been already used by the army.

However, to create an effective laser weapon with various firing capabilities, we require a mobile force supply for lasers and we are not there yet. Although nanotechnology has created small accumulators that can keep sufficient energy needed by a laser gun working one day, we also require to discover a constant material that can resist this extent of energy.

Therefore, whether you are lucky or unfortunate adequate to witness a first-hand laser weapon in your life, there is one thing that cannot be never seen by you while you are living: super-lasers destructing the planet.

It may take lots of years without finding a means to force these superweapons, however, it’s not contrary to the physics laws.

To this date, we know a type of light with almost unimaginable power: gamma-ray burst. Gamma-ray explosives are gigantic extragalactic radiation bursts that are thought to occur at the time a black hole is happening.

It’s theoretically likely that we can foresee a gamma-ray weapon and distort it in purpose in a particular course, however, it will take lots of years.

Chapter 3 – Theoretically, although the probability of occurring teleportation has a true likelihood, it is going to take years for us to teleport people.

Do you remember the last moment when you were dreaming of “teleporting” to your destination when you got stuck in the last traffic jam? This opinion of ​​teleportation includes transferring material, info, or energy from a place to another with no passing through the physical location, and it is not as strange as you think.

Teleportation is known to always happen spontaneously in quantum theory. In other words, electrons always receive “quantum leaps”, that is, they instantly disappear and show up in another place in the atom, and can be observed in distinct places at the same time. So, it is theoretically likely that you can instantly reach a gathering, celebration, or another planet where you need it one day.

When two electrons that vibrate at the same time are separated, there is also a striking occurrence named “quantum entanglement” that occurs. Whatever is done to one electron, even if they are very far away from one another, it switches the condition the other one has. This is described as the data that one has is transported to another.

Further charming is that by scientists, teleporting of objects has been already achieved. Using quantum mixing, physicists beamed trillions of particles mixed with a gleam of light in a long way.

The thing that many do not recognize is the time an atom is “teleport” it is data informing its transmitted state, for instance, the form of rotation. The particle oneself is not transferred materialistically. In a point, teleporting a thing from location A to location B needs configuration at location B depends on the transmitted data.

At remarkably lower heats, the majority of the atoms are entangled, so experiments are carried out by scientists with a Bose-Einstein condensate, a very cold substance found in our universe known for the hope of irradiating enhancing big materials

However, given that teleportation would occur only under ultimate states, teleportation may take a little longer at the moment. Furthermore, teleporting a complicated thing like a person’s body is tough as it may need quantum computer calculations and such technology yet is at a rather primitive stage.

Chapter 4 – Possible things involve reading the mind and relocating things using your brain.

Who doesn’t desire to see what is going on in people’s brains? For more than a century, scientists, have been explored that the requirements of paranormals and exploring any technological likelihoods that can allow other extra perceptions, involving mind-reading and spiritual reading, that is, they can transport materials with brainpower.

Even if there is no solid proof to seeing minds, it makes leaps by technology when inferring brain working. Nevertheless, they cannot be read due to the very weak electric waves that spread from one’s brain, and although an antenna is connected to them, it is not possible to decode the signals.

However, MRI technology, by scientists, is currently helped them grasp brain models. So far, a “glossary of the brain” has been compiled that can turn these models into people’s passions.

However, with MRI technology, it is far from being able to decipher the abundance of people’s minds that one’s brain may build, or mapping lots of neurons in brains as it approaches the creation of handheld devices that can read small magnetic fields.

Psychokinesis? What is near to redesigning this concept is that we communicate immediately to a machine through the transportation of brain waves electronically.

Thanks to modern technology, it has been made likely to utilize placed chips reading minds and convert those to instructions. This provides immobile humans to not just check tools but also to accomplish complex duties and even enjoy computer games.

In the following hundred years, with this technology, it can be improved to an extent that can check nanotechnology via feedback and accomplish assignments that look like true magic today.

Chapter 5 – By science, it is still actually trying to improve intelligent machines and robots.

Starting with the Jetsons’ Rosie to Terminator, the purpose of machines and AI for generations has been heavily influenced. However, thanks to modern computers, there are very basic things that they cannot do when they can make mind-blowing algorithms within seconds.

Such as language. While computers could be processed to unite characters and build grammatically true sentences, they cannot understand the point in vocables, and it is claimed by many theorists that they will never want to. By computer scientists, common sense has not been programmed to machines so far, and model identification in computers remains weak.

The opinion can be seemed implementable: identify the principles of general sense and turn those into numbers that could be entered into a computer. For example, “fire could be hazardous” can be a rule.

However, finding millions of orders is an issue.

As a result, in tens of years of coding, no victory has been seen in equipping machines with intuition. Likewise, good results have not been achieved with programming machines that recognize patterns. Let’s say you desire to go to a place: you should define barriers and ensure a proper path passing them. Although people can do this immediately, by robots, it is only seen as straight dashes, waves, and lags far behind to understand them.

However, with a fresh way to develop AI, it is provided robots to discover from experiences like people and animals. We do not memorize the principles of intuition as a baby. On the contrary, our general sense appears by living: at the time by us, it is touched the water, we realize that it is moist. By this means, we ascertain while going to the places with hit-or-miss, making mistakes on the way, and by hitting the walls.

Inspired by this, insect-like robots were improved by Rodney Brooks, a professor at MIT, who found out to walk by learning. It functioned so great that currently, there are robots he made that are gathering information for NASA on Mars.

Chapter 6 – Although extraterrestrial life has not been found yet, by scientists, it has been continuing to research.

Are people just clever creatures around the cosmos? Although this question has been investigated for centuries, are we near to discovering an answer?

By scientists, steps are taken to find other forms of smart life: it is provided that our spy glasses are becoming greater, and the ability to describe the things that they are showing is also developing. To the extent that we are finding a fresh extrasolar world every two months. Furthermore, as we keep going to sending satellites, the probability of discovering marks of living in other places in the cosmos rises.

As thirty annums of inadequate evidence have passed, by scientists who are in the Extraterrestrial Intelligence Search (SETI) project, their research is expanded, hoping to receive interstellar signals. By science, it is also a bigger norm for livable worlds, which permits us to explore for existence around the most propitious areas.

Something that is known is that our lives in the world are unimaginable with a shortage of water and that can also apply to existence on other worlds. Therefore, a major signal in deciding if a world can survive in the presence of water.

However, within annums, various parameters have been discovered to designate the viability of a planet. Such as, having a big moon for important to fix the axis of a planet is a factor. With a shortage of it, a world would become remarkably hesitant, which could stimulate ultimate weather situations and make it uninhabitable.

It can be also looked at the existence of a world similar to Jupiter in the galaxy of a planet, due to this assist preserve the planet from asteroids.

Still, despite the efforts, there is found inadequate proof of the presence of extraterrestrial beings. Ninety-five % of UFO views could be ascribed to incidents like atmospheric anomalies, scams, or sights of hidden aircraft projects.

Nevertheless, the 5 % left has not yet been announced, like the sights of UFOs documented by the CIA in 1976 on Iran.

Chapter 7 – Tech for space has been improving, however, lots of significant difficulties are still ahead.

Within years, by the sun, it will be swelled and consume our world. If people survive, by us, a means to quit the stellar structure must be found. Therefore, how should we do it?

It begins with discovering the appropriate propellant power to forward a spaceship in the universe. Although not an easy success, different opportunities are already being explored by science.

Plasma and ion motors are two possibilities. Thanks to the plasma engines, the hydrogen gas is heated to very high temperatures, at this point the plasma is formed and then the plasma is emitted by a strong stream. Likewise, with ion engines, ion beams are removed to improve the spaceship. An ion motor was already applied by NASA in 1998 to feed the 1st Deep Space.

Using solar sails using low but constant sunlight pressure can be another approach to develop a spaceship. However, for a sufficiently large starship, sails need to drive long miles. Unluckily, with our present technology, it is not sensible to build a sail-like that and put that in the universe.

Next, ramjet fusion ships are found. They generate a tremendous amount of energy via initiating a thermonuclear rebound in the gas of hydrogen. This can allow a spaceship to move at the rate of 77 % of the pace of light, indicating it takes only 23 years for a crew to arrive at the galaxy named Andromeda. An issue is that the universe required to store fuel requires a very large ship to be built in space. Nevertheless, the sharp brains at NASA are exploring the opportunity of a “space escalator” to bring construction substances to space.

Making universe movement less hazardous is another challenge. For starters, by us, it is required to preserve ourselves from radioactivity, as we are welcoming to a huge extent of radiation if we do not have the world’s atmosphere and magnetic field around us. Then the problem of weightlessness is found. Unless there is no constant gravity, our muscles’ atrophy and skeletons break. In case, following an annum in the universe, spacemen are getting so weak so that they can’t walk.

Chapter 8 – It was determined by Einstein that the pace of light should be the boundary of people’s travel – however, that may be incorrect.

It was theorized by Einstein that the pace of light would be the highest in the cosmos, however, by physicists, two possible gaps were found in her thought.

Firstly, the space distortion. If you assume the area like a part of a paper and require to move to start with a tip of a page and finish with the other, the distortion area is similar to bending that part of the paper where the two pieces converge. According to Einstein’s equations, space-time distortion could be computed with a given bulk or power. However, if you begin computing with a (-) bulk or (-) power, you may get results at a higher pace than light, therefore, disclaims Einstein.

Miguel Alcubierre is a scientist physicist working on (-) bulk and (-) power computations. By Alcubierre, the disk was proposed and could function like this: Initially, you will require adequate (-) power to build a foam according to time of space for wrapping a starship. Afterward, when this balloon moves from location A to location B, it will squeeze the area in front of itself and extend the area it left behind. When the maximum pace of passing an uncompressed route from A to B is the pace of light, one can arrive at location B quicker than light after the route is compressed.

Therefore, how is this (-) power found? Although it was calculated in a lab, until now, it has only been measured in small quantities.

Another gap in Einstein’s postulation is the peepholes in the universe. In Einstein’s theory, short cuts named peepholes are permitted around two moments in the time of space. If these were to be used, tremendous distances can be made when going independently from side to side from them.

Unluckily, a huge amount of (-) power is required to accomplish this. It’s the dimensions of Jupiter. And it will be adequate to open just one meter of a wormhole. Besides, we are exposed to a fatal amount of radiation.

Chapter 9 – Travelling in time can be harsh and guide to contradictions, however, the rules of physics are not violated.

The concept of traveling in time was made to fascinate science fiction. There is nothing regarding the phenomenon that contradicts the physics laws or theory of quantum, despite the objection to the possibility of time travel because we haven’t met a time traveler yet, by eminent physicist Stephen Hawking.

Indeed, although by people, traveling to the future has been already provided, albeit very small.

Time travel depends on Einstein’s private relativity postulate, because the higher the pace that a missile acts, the lower pace the time would go, for instance, for passengers in it. If you are moving fast adequately in space, you could go to the future compared to the one in the World. This applies to Sergei Avdeyev, an astronaut from Russia who has been rotating around the World for seven hundred forty-eight days, with that, holding a world record of .02 seconds to travel to the future.

So, what do you think regarding the backward travel in time? It is a huge challenge, but still possible. For Einstein, space and time are closely related. So, when a peephole links to two distinct ends in the universe, it can connect both places over time. Similar to a journey at a faster pace than light, going backward in time requires peepholes and gigantic amounts of (-) power to generate spacetime openings.

Sure, what causes some contradictory paradoxes is time travel. For example, when you go to your previous days and murdered your mother and father at a time that you have not born, you couldn’t be there. But without you, you wouldn’t travel backward to murder your mother and father before you came to the world, so you will be born! However, assuming that a parallel another cosmos appears when you come backward in time, this paradox can be resolved. So, the previous times you traveled from could be another previous time than you travel, but it would look the same, and your mother and father would be “genuinely” genetically alike to the mother and father you came from.

Many of these advances are within the limits of our present knowledge, and if we notice them, we require to write again some basic physical orders.

Chapter 10- The dreams of inventors were the continuous motion machine for hundreds of years.

What would be considered by Nikola Tesla and Da Vinci both as the divine of the invention? Continuous movement device – a machine that could generate more power than it absorbs.

With the growth of our population, meeting our energy requirements is turning into a very important issue for today’s many scientists, however, we can solve our issues by using a continuous motion machine.

It is stated in thermodynamics laws that it is improbable to generate greater power than everything consumes. However, there are gaps in this principle, and by scientists, it is continued to investigate the likelihood of distilling power from emptiness or a gap. It was tried by Nikola Tesla using this point utilizing the thing named 0-point power, however, it was not very successful.

However, in this theory today, it has been re-revealed thanks to the dark energy contained that is discovered in whole suctions. Thanks to the data processed with the satellites revolving around the Earth, it was deduced that 73 % of the cosmos is built by this dark power.

Notwithstanding physicists’ experiments demonstrating the presence of dark energy, they have not been able to define or compute this power so far.

Moreover, utilizing this power is a quite various matter. So far, only the smallest amounts discovered in the world – not close to adequate for propelling a continuous motion machine. However, when dark power can be applied to propel a device like this, it could create an unbelievable change in the Earth.

It has already pushed the limits of tech and anything that was once considered impractical are used daily by us: the best example is the internet. But, making a continuous motion machine not only changes our world, but it also requires reconstructing physics, like it is known by us.

Chapter 11 – The thing that can be found leading-edge results in physics.

By Einstein, the last piece of Einstein’s life was spent chasing an ultimate aim: an explanatory postulate of anything. In other words, a whole postulate that can describe the whole basic powers of the cosmos, involving electromagnetism, gravity, strong & weak atomic power. That will cover every physical law, allowing us to describe the roots of the cosmos. However, that was not thriving.

However, today we are near to ever to acquire the theory of anything, with a stable search of space and the help of quantum physics.

Although some parts of our puzzle are still missing by us, improvements in tech, like radiation detector satellites, which could compute radiation only 300,000 annums following the huge explosion, indicate that we are approaching to uncover the roots of our cosmos.

Thanks to these radioactive pointers, even progress has been made to track neutrino radiation, which are so challenging elements that were once considered impractical to discover. Following these can take us in seconds without the huge explosion, and having these data, we can potentially be directed to a discernible theory of anything. This testable theory can be the theory of string.

The theory of string is not a new theme: since 1968, people have attempted to link the gravity theory to the relativity theory, thereby creating an all-inclusive theory.

Thanks to the theory of string, atoms can be represented like “strings” which shake and interrelate to one another. A particular vibrational state refers to a quantum mechanics atom named “graviton”. With that, the theory of string could interrelate gravity theory laws to quantum theory laws. It could also describe a lot of subatomic atoms which have arouse in recent years from atom pacers because they are all distinct shakes of strings.

It is hoped that by the group working on the Great Hadron Collider will soon discover the superparticles that will be tested and supported indirectly as the linking theory of the string theory. When this occurs, the thing that is likely or improbable in this field of physics will be questioned once again.

Physics of the Impossible by Michio Kaku Book Review

The over-brought phenomena under the top sci-fi films and books aren’t just fun: they delineate tomorrow’s possibilities and make us recall that the supposed impossibility in the field of science is just a challenge.

Download Pdf

Download Epub


Savaş Ateş

I'm a software engineer. I like reading books and writing summaries. I like to play soccer too :) Good Reads Profile:

Recent Posts