The Art of Public Speaking by Dale Carnegie [Book Summary – Review]


Spiders are examples of heights and public speaking phobias. Everyone has phobias. However, public speaking does not have to be such a terrible thing, even if you prefer to walk between two skyscrapers on a string of spider invasions rather than speaking before an eager audience.

In this abstract, the talent to talk in the community is an issue of practice. In the beginning, probably it is going to be disturbing, but it is the only way to come through disturbance; you should dive into the topic.

After overcoming that discomfort, the remnant will be coming like a relative breeze. So indeed, specializing in elocution art is an enjoyable and incredible effort. Of course, there are a lot of applications to occur great speech, but, accomplished talk depends on a sincere sense and faith in the topic you offer. In this summary, you will be given a series of practical hints that will overshadow your intimacy and belief – from how to overcome stage fright to how to organize the audience. 


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Chapter 1 – Being a talented speaker is a topic of practice and stage fear can be reduced.


Do you bethink how you first found out to swim? Have you been to the library, read a handbook on the art of swimming, and then flood with hard-earned information, safely freeze your swimming equipment and dive into the nearest water body?

Probably not. Whatever remember or not remember, you found out to swim. Before you feel like at home in a pool, you probably had a lot of strange blends and that’s why water your nose.

Why do you stand on your entry into the water kingdom? Specializing in the art of talking in front of the community is like finding out to swim. Speaking is the just way to transforming into a talented speaker. And that signifies famous jumping deep tip.

Firstly, you will probably be worried while standing in front of a viewer. But, do not be sad. Many major speakers, such as from British statesman William Gladstone until American clergyman Henry Ward Beecher, have never acted from stage fright.

But speaking is not a topic of fearlessness; it’s an issue of dominating your fright. There are three paths to do it and these are;

The first one is to eliminate the sense of self-consciousness by allowing you to absorb yourself by the topic of your talking. If you concentrate the opinion or message you’re trying to contact completely, there will be little room for your idle concerns about your appearance or how the viewer perceives you. Subject yourself to the content of your talking, all unnecessary worries about self-presentation will disappear.



It is on a par significant to have something to say. The reason for the failure of some speakers is to get on the stage without prepared. When you go on stage, if you have not prepared your things and did not practice your talking before, you suspect as soon as you open your mouth and your worries will attack you. To prevent this from happening, the writer of the book recommends that you learn by heart at least the first few clauses of your talking.

Then we wait, after preparing for success. Waiting for success does not mean that you have to trust and complain. On the contrary, protect your humility – not a frightening, unhelpful humility, but a kind of living humility, endless openness to development. You should leave aside your fears that get confused and be willing to succeed.

Your first few conversations may feel like a kind of drowning – however, you should continue to practice and you will soon surface very easily.


Chapter 2 – Emphasis is used to overcome monotony.


Consider that you are a pianist. Wherever you play your melodies or other one’s songs, making comments for music have a lot of countless paths. Slowly or rapidly, kindly or stentorian for music can be performed by you; with wild flourishes or solid homogenous. Shortly, to performing music, there is no exact rule.

So, the same thing is valid for talking in front of the community. There is no final to paths to talk successfully, but firstly, you must be master in the topic of your speaking bases.

Monotony is an adversary for a conversation like in music. Think that you make a trial to perform Bach concerto on a one-key piano. Any determination or creativity can prevent your monotonous performance from becoming as matte as death. So, what do you think about how can you prevent monotony? In general, you need to equip your talking instrument with a series of new notes.

Emphasis is the first switch (word game) of dynamic speech. Emphasis is a topic of comparing and showing oppositeness the central opinion of your talking, and emphasizing important words is a basic path to do this.

For instance, thinking the next clauses: “Destiny is not a situation of luck. It’s an issue of choice.” So, what did be the most obvious path for saying these propositions?

Instead of emphasizing each vocable equally, the word “destiny” will be emphasized, as this is the topic of the first proposition. Accordingly, the word “not” should be emphasized to emphasize negation. And “luck” should be emphasized, as you will juxtapose with “choice” that is the main word in the next sentence.



So, you don’t have to emphasize a word by saying it out loud. So, this means that; For example, if you talk loudly, you can whisper the remarkable word, or if you are talking in a resonant tenor sound, you can roar with a deep bass sound.

The first one of all of the techniques is switching your talking for emphasizing a talking’s main opinion. And, the rest of them is given respectively; switching your speed and pausing.

In daily language, if the people talk about exciting situations, they talk faster but if they talk to transfer instant news, they generally talk slower. Besides, they often prefer pauses for affecting people dramatically.

That’s why, you can desire pause immediately before, or right after, an important vocable or phrase. Or you could prefer to say quickly the first and less important part of a sentence, and later on, the most important part of word could be said slowly by you.

You might see some of your instrument’s buttons in front of you. You should decide about how you would perform with them.


Chapter 3 – The base point of talking in front of the community is to the talent of waking up sense in your audience.


Consider that two orators who are every delivering anti-slavery talking in pre-Emancipation Proclamation America. The first person is a white politician and a man with a rigid record of anti-slavery activism. The other is a black mother in the public and also, a woman tracing her son being sold from the estuary.

What do you consider about which talking would be more exciting?

The jury is not on this. Many of the most courageous speakings in American history were made only by such women – black mothers who enslaved the inhumanity of slavery. These women did not have a formal education about talking in front of the community. However, they had something bigger and the stuff, that owned by them, was not presented by either job or application could offer; the owned stuff was the power of feelings.

The thing that manages us through our lives is our senses. What do you think is the reason for sleeping in soft beds or drinking cool beverages in the hot day? There is no reason to take this kind of judgment by using logic; these things just feel correct and good. 

Whole eager speakers must believe and take this truth in every heart. Waking up the senses of your audience makes more than winning them with using hours of masterpiece, rational argument.

This reality is caused by a little advertising test run by a New York watchmaker. More than one advertising campaign started by him. In the first, the features of many watches were emphasized, such as durability to the functionality of the design. In the other, as outlined in the slogan of the campaign, detailed the paths of having pleasure and pride: “a watch to be proud of”.

It is not surprising that the second campaign performed better than the first one and sold twice as many watches.



So, how can your speech be instilled by using emotions?

We are not going to tell a lie about the topic: work is necessary. When you make a talking, you should make an entrance into its matter exactly. So, what is the meaning of it exactly?

Suppose you are an actor and you are talking to your character. Whatever the reason you are discussing or the situation you are doing, you should be in a certain mean. Once you adopt your role and wear like clothes or costume, it owns you like a soul.

Many actors ban others from talking to them hours before the performance. So, you can make a trial something parallel. You can turn yourself into your agent to ensure that you add interest and feeling to your audience.


Chapter 4 – You can find out gestures but they are inspired by actual emotions.


What do you think to do about that tree? The apple tree that is stunted, leafless branches with gnarled, is in your garden. Do you know? The solution is there. You can run to the garage, take your chainsaw, see the chains of your neighbor’s rising oak tree, pull them into the courtyard, and nail down them gloriously to the tree body!

Oh, if only he had overcome the stuff about gardening challenges so easily.

You don’t have to have a green thumb for knowing that the aspect of a tree depends on the inland provision. However, spreading this fact into the art of gesture requires a leap of imagination.

When you make a speech, your movements and gestures should originate from the real emotions you experience while occupying the subject of your speech. The theater will look as silly as the affected branches of oak branches nailed to an apple tree.

So, the gesture must occur with the spontaneous growth of real emotions. But it does not mean that it could not be made practice.

You can no longer prepare every move to accompany your talking. The effective gesture must be organic and proper for the situation that occurs spontaneously in each talk. If you traced the same talking of the talented speaker twice, you must have noticed that the movement changes with each speech.



However, spontaneity does not provide quality. Indeed, organic movements are often strange. Prepare for every conversation by watching yourself in the mirror to make your movements effective. Note any strange or redundant movements and regulate accordingly.

Gesturing is like pronunciation. If the more you practice, the less you need to think. Practice, practice, practice, and your movements are going to become laborless and inborn, appearing spontaneously at the right times.

Also, you should not forget that doing too much motion tends to move the speakers away from their message. You must do your best to annihilate whole unnecessary motions.

Besides, you should ensure that your motions support your message. It would be strange to say, “Here he is going,” while it points to the back of a gentleman who had escaped after a second break.

And do not forget, facial expression and attitude have counted a kind of gesture. You must ensure that your both posture and expression support your talking soul!

Once implemented, you can count on your common sense. Allow the subject of the conversation to be your guide, and your sign will soon be as strong as your vocable.


Chapter 5 – Well, health is necessary for good sound.


Do you think basketball players have anything in common with the talkers in front of a community? Of course, the people in both groups should be comfortable in front of the crowd, but there is something else and the other stuff; both groups’ cardiovascular conditions must be well!

Whether you are running for exact results or making a trial to make your voice clear in a large podium, the thing that will help is an only strong double lung.

Good lungs are essential for a strong and resonant sound. The writer also met a successful speaker, who practiced her talking meanwhile running. So, it compelled her to breathe deeply and improve her lung strength.

But what unless you’re not an athletic type? There is a basic exercise that will help your lungs and educate you to breathe with the help of your diaphragm, and the exercise demonstrates the best way to get the most air.

Start by standing with your hands on your waist. Now try to touch the fingers of one hand on the fingers of the other, provided that your hands remain in place, and thus squeeze all the air in your lungs. Breathe deeply into your stomach without lifting your shoulders. Repeat the process.

However, lung capacity is not the only criteria for a strong voice. The other thing that is equally significant is relaxation. Your throat must be open if you desire your sound to be moved to a room. There are also some basic exercises to learn you to deal with useless nervousness.



While your waist acts as a twist, move your torso in horizontal circles. With it, let your head forward and loosen your neck. This is done because it will make your throat open and relax.

You should pretend to stretch to enhance the opening of your throat. You are going to realize that your throat opens naturally as you do. Now, try to talk instead of yawning. Making it should cause the volume and richness of the tone to enhance.

The power of local carrying cannot be obtained only with the sound level; it is also an issue of placement. For example, people behind a theater stage do not have difficulty hearing the shearing of a crumpled piece of paper, it is not even a noisy sound by any means. If you put your sound right, you can make the whisper hearable for everyone.

Putting it forward is the way to do it.

Try holding your hand in front of your face and telling vocable like “crash”, “dash”, “rush” and “buzz.” Keep going to do this until you feel the tones that shot your hand.


Chapter 6 – If you desire to rise the impact of your talking, your listeners must be arranged.


Oh, fresh air! Crickets are chirping! Night sky full of stars! You’re making a camp and lighting a fire is all you need to roast some hot dogs. You collect some nice dry rods, distribute them randomly, burn a match and apply it to the closest kindling kind.

If you have any camping knowledge, you will have realized a critical error in this firing choreography. Your bar edit is wrong. If you want to get a satisfying fire, the sticks must be placed in a stack and thanks to the batch order, the flame can transfer from one to another one.

If an orator is a match, the effect of her talking is flame. So, if the speaker desired to ignite the hearts and consciousnesses of her audience, how would she organize her listeners?

 If we put aside the metaphors for a moment, let’s find out why positioning the listeners’ members close together can raise the impact of your talking.

The mass can turn it into a crowd if the mass is arranged to be clustered into a dense mass. The crowd is nothing more than a peaceful gang, and as John Ruskin who was the 19th-century social thinker once stated, gangs are inclined to “thinking by infection.” In other words, if you can turn your audience into a crowd, your idea catches the “flu.”



In addition to this initial crowd-building strategy, you can combine individual audiences by uniting around common concerns. Address your needs and fears, desires and emotions. When they perceive that their concerns are shared by the audience individually, they turn into a crowd.

But maybe you suspect that crowds are prone to such mental transmission? Have you ever been to a concert and had this experience – the music ends, someone claps and then everyone silences in silence in seconds, even if quiet was just a break between actions?

Infection.

Or if we take a paper from the history book, we will see: Many autocratic states, such as the Soviets, realized the power of the crowd mentality and, accordingly, prohibited members of the public from gathering in public places.

So, what was the reason? The reason was the fright of contagion.

These governments were concerned that anti-authoritarian thought would be caught and spread like a disease.

When you develop the talent to create crowds, your community message will begin to spread to reignite our metaphor.


Chapter 7 – To enrich your power of discussion, you should test your arguments.


Once upon a time, there was a king who desired to rule the world. And he had an amazing ability: he could build impregnable castles. However, this king also had a deadly error: he could not overthrow the enemies’ fortifications.

If you cannot refute any arguments that can be used against you, creating an undeniable argument will not take you anywhere. Indeed, if you are unable to make holes in the potential values ​​of potential opponents, their claims will be as vulnerable as you are concerned.

If you desire to be an effective orator, you should have the talent to both create an argument and break it down. Sooner or later, each speaker will see that their opinion sweats difficulty.

How to set up and interestingly demolish arguments was explained by the writer. Instead of prescribing or not prescribing a group discussion, it demonstrates a list of useful questions.

Each discussion consists of four sections: the question, evidence, noesis, and conclusions discussed. In below, you will see eight questions to help you test any discussion – two for each episode.

Firstly, you should define whether the question is clearly stated for the question under debate. This requires making sure that all specific lock words mean the same thing for each issue. To illustrate, if a competitor uses the vocable as “gentleman”, make sure that the meaning of the word is the same as yours. Secondly, ask if this event is fairly expressed. Either there is little knowledge, or the formulation of the argument may include a trap.

For proof of the argument, at first, ask which experts are cited first. Are they neutral? What makes them masters? Are their opinions open, reliable and impartial? Secondly, ask what facts are mentioned. Do you have enough? Do they promote or say the exact opposite of each other? Are they approved or controversial?



On the grounds of the argument, first, you should ask whether the presented facts will support a different outcome than the proposed one. Secondly, you must ask if all opposing variables are independently poor.

There are two useful questions for the results: firstly, are you guilty of non-sorter – that is, do you offer a controversial result that does not follow from the proof? Secondly, is all your evidence compatible?

Don’t forget, just make sure that your arguments are not resistant to these questions. Steer them to your opponents’ arguments. In this way, you will be a double threat: as invincible as our king in his castle, but with an enriching influence on its own.


Chapter 8 – You should use your imagination to the public’s talking benefits.


It is the basic argument on which all persuasive speeches are built. However, if talking is only a well-processed chain of logical connections, it will be inanimate and life. It is going to surely be solid – but who desires to listen?

Therefore, the advantage of imagination should be used before approaching the public talking podium.

Using figurative language is the first path to do it. 

Let us assume that you claim that alcoholism is the destructor of happy homes. Now you can stand in front of your listeners, explain your thesis, and then list a long and boring list of statistics that support it. Long and boring lists can work if you find yourself talking before a crowd of truth-loving data analysts. But let’s be honest: it makes most people sleepy.



A better choice is to spark your audience’s imagination with a tale.

Construct the story of a drunk person who returns from his scum at the weekend, shouts at his wife and hits her children. This story will not only make your audience more likely to attract your attention; it will also adhere to them in a way that cold numbers and bland generalizations will not.

Using your imagination is the next path to view the conversation you want to give.

In other words, before giving a speech, you should create mental images of how the talking will go. These images must include “viewing” your listeners. Think both plus and minus reactions of the crowd that you will talk to. Thinking this both reduces anxiety and makes you ready for potential setbacks.

Now speak tightly to your audience in front of your mental eyes. Think about what you are going to tell, how you can say, and what actions you can use. Besides, if you can paint on images, you are going to be less likely to forget something and make a challenging delivery.

The backbone of the poem is images. What many community speakers forget is their kind of poet too. If you hold this in mind and allow the images open, your conversations will stand out.


The Art of Public Speaking by Dale Carnegie Book Review


There is the only path to be an effective speaker: practice, practice, practice. However, there are methods to aim for you to be successful. For starters, avoiding monotony by using the emphasis effectively, let your movements originate from an intimate sense, turn your viewer into a crowd and enhance your voice by joining your cardiovascular health. As a result, compare your claims and your competitors’ claims and you shall use images to make ready and procreate your speech.


Enhance your thesaurus.

If you have a big thesaurus, your talking will be much more effective. A strong language command is the only way to communicate opinions strongly. If you want to expand your vocabulary, you should apply new vocable. To illustrate, when you get a copy of Montaigne’s articles or Wordsworth’s poem next time, take note of some foreign words. And later on – this is the important part – include them in your next talking.


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