The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X, Alex Haley (Book Summary)


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Malcolm X is presumably the most notable name in the American Civil Rights development of the 1960s except for Martin Luther King Jr. In any case, though King’s “I have a fantasy” discourse and his unfortunate homicide are normal learning, numerous individuals know little of what Malcolm X said or composed or an amazing narrative. 



In this rundown, we become more acquainted with the man from his own viewpoint: where he originated from; how he joined the Nation of Islam; his movements to the Middle East and Africa. These are largely vital bits of the riddle behind a standout amongst the most compelling African-Americans of the only remaining century. 


1 – Malcolm lost his dad and his mom at a youthful age.


On May 19, 1925, Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little.

His dad, Reverend Earl Little, was a Baptist minister who helped spread the instructing of Marcus Garvey, the originator of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). 

Malcolm was the seventh of eight youngsters and his mom, Louise, attempted to care for them all. Louise was conceived in the West Indies, the result of her mom’s assault by a white slave ace, which implied that Louise had extremely reasonable skin that occasionally brought about her being confused with a white lady. 

This likewise implied Malcolm was brought into the world with rosy hair and a light appearance – the lightest of any of his kin. Malcolm trusted it was this distinction in his appearance that drove his mom to be harsher on him than her other youngsters. In her eyes, he was a living token of the white attacker in the family’s past. 

In the interim, maybe due to this equivalent distinction, his dad favored Malcolm, much of the time taking him to UNIA gatherings. 



Yet, his dad’s endeavors to make a feeling of pride and character operating at a profit network prompted a deplorable end. 

One of Malcolm’s first recollections dated from when they were living in Lansing, Michigan. He woke up amidst the night in a frenzy. A racial oppressor gathering, The Black Legion, had burned down the Littles’ home, yet fortunately, the family got away safe. 

Typically, it deteriorated: When Malcolm was six years of age, his dad was killed. In spite of having been lethally beaten, the police considered his passing a mishap. 


From that point onward, Louise attempted to keep the family together as a single parent. She was prideful and didn’t care for falling back on government help, however in the long run needed to. 

This implied managing the administration’s kid welfare officials, who were particularly brutal to Louise, attempting to turn the kids against her. They at long last succeeded, placing Louise in a state mental emergency clinic when Malcolm was 12 and sending the children to live with various families. 


2 – Malcolm’s rough school years presented him to prejudice, yet Boston uncovered a different universe.


Malcolm’s days in school was not simple, and at 13 years old, caused harm in the wake of playing a trick on one of his instructors. 

In the wake of being admonished for wearing a cap in class, he put an attach his instructor’s seat when the educator wasn’t looking. 

Therefore, Malcolm was ousted from the school and sent to a confinement home. The general population who ran the home treated him well, yet they unreservedly utilized “nigger” around him and discussed him as though he couldn’t comprehend what they were stating. 


It was the first run through Malcolm had lived with white individuals, and he started to see that it was normal for them to regard dark individuals just as they couldn’t in any way, shape or form have a similar insight or affectability as whites. 

After a year, Malcolm entered middle school, where this kind of treatment proceeded. 

He was one of just a couple of dark understudies in the school and did his best to incorporate with his white schoolmates. He joined the b-ball crew yet wasn’t permitted to move within the sight of any white young ladies at the post-game gatherings. 



Malcolm was even chosen class president that year, however, he came to accept that his colleagues were regarding him as a mascot, not an equivalent. 

At the point when his instructor asked him what he needed to be, Malcolm replied, “a legal counselor.” Malcolm was harmed when the educator revealed to him he ought to be progressively sensible and think about being a craftsman. 


Be that as it may, Malcolm before long observed another world on a visit to Boston. 

The late spring after seventh grade, Malcolm acknowledged an encouragement to visit his stepsister Ella, who lived in the Roxbury zone of the city. Just because, he saw dark individuals gladly acting naturally in their own neighborhood and making an effort not to be white. 

At the point when Malcolm came back to Lansing, he could never again endure the supremacist jokes of his instructors and cohorts; he knew there was a superior spot for him. 


3 – Malcolm was acquainted with current dark culture in Roxbury and Harlem.


His sister Ella had the option to make herself Malcolm’s lawful watchman, fortunately, enabling him to move to Roxbury, where he immediately found out about road life. 

Unintentionally, one of the principal individuals Malcolm met was a man named Shorty, who coincidentally was from Lansing, Michigan. 

Shorty encouraged Malcolm, calling attention to the better subtleties of Roxbury’s seedier side and finding him a line of work sparkling shoes at the amazing Roseland Ballroom jazz club. 

Not exclusively did youthful Malcolm sparkle the shoes of performers like Duke Ellington and Count Basie, yet he likewise figured out how to hustle: the activity of the shoeshine kid additionally involved giving artists and clients alcohol, marijuana or the telephone quantities of neighborhood whores. 

During this time, Malcolm himself enjoyed alcohol, marijuana, conspicuous garments and moving. 



Shorty told Malcolm the best way to conk his hair – an excruciating procedure of utilizing hot lye to rectify the twists. In any case, he would later come to view conked hair as a token of self-corruption, “the mentally programmed dark man” harming his hair with an end goal to make it “look white.” 

Still not yet 18 years of age, Malcolm bobbed from employment to work before landing enduring work as a doorman on trains, offering nourishment and drink to travelers. 

Taking a shot at the line from Boston to New York City, Malcolm had his first chance to visit Harlem. In only one night he became hopelessly enamored with the city, particularly the immense Savoy club, double the size of the Roseland. 


Malcolm chose to move and, in 1942, turned into a server at Small’s Paradise, a Harlem café and prominent social milestone. 

In the wake of losing his employment, Malcolm took up a real existence of wrongdoing in 1940s Harlem.

Thanks to his job at Small’s Paradise, Malcolm had the opportunity to rapidly figure out how loads of individuals brought home the bacon in the city of Harlem: by hustling. Malcolm found who to trust, who to maintain a strategic distance from, and the intricate details of a wide range of crimes, including burglary, pimping, and betting. 

Malcolm would before long set this information to work when he lost his position at Small’s Paradise subsequent to wrongly offering a whore’s number to a covert cop. 


In the wake of getting terminated, he went to a companion known as “Sammy the Pimp,” who proposed he may make cash selling cannabis. 

From his time at the Roseland and Savoy, Malcolm had numerous artist companions who were solid clients. At best, the 17-year-old Malcolm would make $50 to $60. Furthermore, when the police started to associate Malcolm with managing in Harlem, he took his business out and about, going on a visit with the performers and keeping them in supply. 

In any case, by 1943, things were getting harder. 

The police incidentally shut down the Savoy and gossipy tidbits that a dark trooper had been shot by a white cop nearly brought about an uproar. 


This adequately ceased what minimal expenditure white individuals were bringing into Harlem and expanded the police nearness. Thus, Malcolm looked for some kind of employment “guiding,” or accompanying white clients to mystery areas in Harlem where their sexual needs could be overhauled. 

Through these encounters, Malcolm saw that Harlem was simply a “cave of transgression” to white individuals. 

Unmistakably, Malcolm was on the off-base way, and that way was going to arrive at an end. 


4 – Malcolm’s crimes at long last landed him in jail where he had a significant arousing.


20-year-old Malcolm was falling into a similar snare the same number of tricksters by 1945: he was taking progressively perilous risks to profit and expanding his medication consumption so as to support his certainty. 

Things started to get really terrible when a betting debate constrained him out of Harlem. 

Malcolm was blamed for duping in the wake of winning a wager put by a man named “West Indian Archie.” Archie gave Malcolm a due date to pay him back – on the agony of death. Therefore, Malcolm spiraled into a suspicious medication dimness of opium, cocaine, and Benzedrine. 

Trusting things would chill, he left Harlem and came back to Boston.

Be that as it may, Malcolm continued hustling. In Boston, he collaborated with Shorty and two white lady friends to loot rich family units. Their wrongdoing binge reached an end when he was captured attempting to pawn a stolen watch. 

This was Malcolm’s first criminal offense, which for the most part would have brought about a two-year sentence. In any case, the judge was especially disturbed about Malcolm plotting with two white young ladies. Thus, in February 1946, Malcolm was condemned to ten years in jail. 

It was in jail that Malcolm had an otherworldly arousing. 



Malcolm was awed by an old convict named Bimbi, who demonstrated to him that you could direction regard by being articulate. Bimbi urged him to utilize the jail library and Malcolm rapidly wound up fixated on perusing. He read everything from English and Latin lexicons to reasoning and world history. 

Malcolm would spend whole evenings perusing, and because of the terrible light, created astigmatism that required remedial focal points. 


It was as of now that two of Malcolm’s siblings kept in touch with him, informing him regarding the Nation of Islam: a religion that was attempting to enable the dark man to recover his long-overlooked character. 

While in jail, Malcolm enthusiastically took to the message of the Nation of Islam, appealing to God just because and perusing increasingly more about the grievous history of African-Americans. 


5 – Malcolm left jail devoted to the Nation of Islam and prepared to spread its message.


Jail demonstrated to be decent preparing ground for Malcolm to locate his open talking voice. While there, he participated in organized discussions in which two individuals would contend rival sides of an issue. 

Malcolm found numerous chances to spread the message of the Nation of Islam in these discussions and what he was realizing in history books. He would denounce the monstrosities that the white man had submitted on the non-white individuals of the world for the sake of Christianity and benefit. 

He had an especially essential effect during one discussion when he tested that Jesus was the pale, light, blue-peered toward a picture that the white man petitions, and in the end got his discussion rival to yield that “Jesus was dark colored.” 


At the point when Malcolm was discharged in 1952, he moved to Detroit to remain with his sibling Wilfred. Malcolm was anxious to commit his life to the Nation of Islam. 

Before he left jail, Malcolm had been composing everyday letters to Elijah Muhammad, the Nation’s head. Muhammad saw Malcolm’s devotion and at the main open door welcomed him to supper. 

During the supper, Malcolm openly offered his administrations to the Nation of Islam. 

Malcolm promptly started an enrollment drive in Detroit, gradually increasing more supporters. His prosperity was noted by different priests in the Nation who requested that he make a trip and talk during administrations. 



Malcolm demonstrated capable of enthusiastically spreading the lessons of Elijah Muhammad and the originator of the Nation of Islam, W. D. Fard. 

These lessons incorporated that the “first man” was dark and that African-Americans are generally relatives of African Muslims who have had their actual personalities removed by white men. 

Malcolm was demonstrating himself to be a characteristic extremist and speaker. 


6 – As a Nation of Islam serves, he moved toward becoming Malcolm X and increased national consideration.


Malcolm was rapidly made an official pastor of the Nation of Islam. Like, different priests, he was given the last name of X, which represented the genuine tribal family name that had been everlastingly lost. 

Malcolm X before long started building up another Nation of Islam sanctuaries around the nation. 

He opened them in spots like Boston, Philadelphia, and Atlanta. What’s more, in a significant number of these urban areas, Malcolm pulled in new individuals by discovering individuals leaving Christian holy places and persuading them to find out about confidence that was definitely not a “white man’s religion.” 

In the end, Malcolm X was made his very own pastor sanctuary in New York City. 

Being back in New York City following nine years away offered Malcolm the opportunity to plunk down with West Indian Archie and talk. He wound up expressing gratitude toward Archie for driving him away from New York City, likely sparing his life. 



Before the finish of the 1950s, the Nation of Islam was standing out as truly newsworthy. 

In 1957, a part called Brother Hinton was assaulted by police in Harlem who was separating a battle where he was not included. 

Malcolm caught wind of the occurrence and drove 50 individuals from his assembly to the police headquarters. He discovered Brother Hinton shrouded in blood and requested he is sent to a medical clinic, which the police in the end permitted. 

Sibling Hinton recouped and the Nation of Islam helped him effectively sue the city of New York for over $70,000. 

Before long, TV and papers were giving an account of this episode of police mercilessness and focusing on national the Nation of Islam. 


7 – The consideration Malcolm X got, in the long run, prompted him being inconsistent with the Nation of Islam.


The Nation of Islam was prospering by 1961. Colossal mobilizes were being held and, as the press was attracted to Malcolm’s energetic character, he utilized meetings to communicate as the need should arise. 

Malcolm needed to sort the record out about the Nation of Islam. The Nation wasn’t about “dark matchless quality,” it was tied in with engaging the dark man and giving him a feeling of pride and nobility in his character. 

Malcolm additionally responded to numerous inquiries concerning why he utilized the expression “the white fallen angel.” He clarified that it was not tied in with spreading despise, yet expressing the actualities about the “evil” conduct that the European and American white man had appeared to non-white races from the beginning of time. To Malcolm, it made one wonder: Why should the dark man attempt to incorporate with such individuals? 

The second point Malcolm attempted to make to the press was to remind everybody he wasn’t showing his own message, yet that of Elijah Muhammad. He would even turn down meeting demands, advising individuals to deliver their inquiries to Muhammad. 

To Malcolm, Muhammad was unassailable – the man in charge of his salvation. 

So it came as a significant stun when, in 1963, Malcolm got irritating news about his coach. 

It worked out that two of Elijah Muhammad’s secretaries were recording paternity suits against him for fathering their kids. Malcolm felt double-crossed. 

This fracture with Elijah Muhammad developed as Malcolm’s popularity expanded. To Elijah and different pioneers of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm was currently a danger. 



Following the death of John F. Kennedy toward the finish of 1963, Malcolm indeed stood out as truly newsworthy by considering the occasion a sign that “past events had happened as intended.” 

Quickly following this comment, the Nation of Islam openly restricted Malcolm from representing 90 days. At that point individuals, Malcolm knew inside the Nation educated him that requests had been given for his demise. 


8 – A journey to Mecca opened up Malcolm’s eyes to the Muslim Brotherhood.


Malcolm X needed to reassess everything now. The man to whom he’d committed his life had disappointed him and was currently arranged to slaughter him. At the point when Malcolm’s colleague revealed to him that he’d been approached to plant a bomb in his vehicle, X realized it was not kidding. 

To get away from the dangers and reaffirm his profound convictions, Malcolm chose to make a journey to Mecca. 

Malcolm was keen on expanding his insight into Islam. Throughout the years, individuals had addressed Malcolm about “genuine Islam” and how it varied from Elijah Muhammad’s instructing. Along these lines, Malcolm was anxious to make the journey to the heavenly city of Mecca, a hallowed obligation that each Muslim is approached to do sooner or later in his life. 

The excursion was an enlightening knowledge. On his voyage, Malcolm immediately discovered that the conventional Muslim religion was in fact very unique in relation to what he’d been persuaded. 

As he visited the blessed land he saw Muslims all things considered. He was especially awed when he was given thoughtful regard and friendliness by blue-looked at, fair-haired individuals who might be viewed as white back in the United States. 



He met Saudi Arabia’s Prince Faisal and was offered books to peruse and advised not to be misdirected by false prophets. 

Moved by his encounters, he composed a letter to the US press communicating his surprise at the presentations of fellowship that he’d experienced among all races and that he should rethink his recently held convictions. 


After Mecca and Cairo, Malcolm headed out to Beirut, Nigeria, and Ghana. En route, he showed up at universities and met with lawmakers. 

He attempted to rally support from these nations, contending that the same amount of exertion ought to be made to help African-Americans as there was to help dark South Africans. 



9 – Malcolm marked the “Letter from Mecca”, El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, a name he had legitimately received around the season of his marriage to Betty.


On May 21, 1964, Malcolm came back to New York, two days after his 39th birthday celebration. The press had numerous inquiries upon his landing. 

Malcolm immediately explained on his newly discovered point of view. 

He clarified that he was starting to comprehend that white individuals were not innately supremacist. Be that as it may, despite everything he felt that white “purported Christian” culture had planted the sentiment of predominance into ages of white individuals and this had prompted a damaging issue. 

This could be found in the uproars breaking out in ghettos around the United States. 

These ghettos had framed because of the ages of prejudice and abuse by white society. Malcolm considered it to be “sociological explosive” that had been planted by whites and said that except if the move was made to improve the circumstance, it wouldn’t have been long until it detonated. 

To take care of this issue, Malcolm comprehended that it was the ideal opportunity for another comprehensive message to be spread. 



To get the message out and make his break with the Nation of Islam open, Malcolm shaped the association Muslim Mosque, Inc. However, he realized that progressively customary endeavors would be expected to make the sort of sociological change expected to liberate dark individuals from the ghetto. 

With an end goal to be increasingly comprehensive, he began the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU). While white individuals couldn’t join OAAU, Malcolm had useful guidance for the individuals who needed to help. 


One of his greatest second thoughts was an episode years before when a white school young lady had asked what she could do and he’d reacted: “Nothing.” 

He clarified that he would now advise that young lady to begin her very own association in her own neighborhood, to get the message out of hostile to prejudice and against brutality among white individuals. 


10 – In spite of the fact that Malcolm X found a sense of contentment with the likelihood of kicking the bucket, his homicide was an awful misfortune.


The demise dangers that encompassed Malcolm X gave every one of his activities desperation. All things considered, his dad and four out of six of his uncles kicked the bucket because of savagery and Malcolm accepted he would be executed by a white supremacist or the Nation of Islam. 

He was not content with his family being compromised while he found a sense of contentment with this plausibility.

He was particularly disturbed when brutality was brought into his home. 

Malcolm was battling a claim brought by the Nation of Islam, who was attempting to constrain his family out of the home given to them by the Nation numerous years already. 

The evening of February 13, 1965, Malcolm and his significant other Betty, who was pregnant with their 6th tyke, were surprised alert when a Molotov mixed drink was tossed through their front window. 



Be that as it may, that was just a prelude to the deplorability of February 21, 1965. 

On this day, Malcolm X’s OAAU association was holding a gathering at the Audubon Ballroom in New York City. Malcolm’s significant other and youngsters were in the group of spectators. 

At the point when Malcolm strolled onto the stage, three shooters from the Nation of Islam opened flame, slaughtering him immediately. 

Betty secured their kids, covering them with her own body during the shooting. Be that as it may after the shooters fled the scene she crumbled alongside the body of her significant other, crying, “They murdered him.” 


Entertainer and companion Ossie Davis conveyed a moving commendation at his burial service. 

Davis anticipated that a few people would consider Malcolm X as a bigot or a man of abhor, yet he called attention to that Malcolm very connected with any brutality in his life. What’s more, if individuals somehow happened to listen near what he was stating, they would hear the expressions of a man who just needed the best for his kin. 

To Davis, Malcolm spoke to a pleased case of a solid, inflexible dark man.


The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X, Alex Haley Book Review


Malcolm X was a perplexing person. In the same way as other individuals, he attempted to get himself and his general surroundings. Be that as it may, he stayed constant and for a mind-blowing duration, he remained inquisitive and scanned for reality. Through diligent work and responsibility, he demonstrated that recovery is conceivable in one’s lifetime.


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